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HISTÓRIA VÝROBY FAJOK
A ARCHEOLOGICKÉ NÁLEZY FAJOK NA SLOVENSKU II, 2016

Marián Čurný
Krajské múzeum v Prešove, Hlavná 86
080 01 Prešov, marian.curny@gmail.com

Peter Šimčík
TRIGLAV Archeologická spoločnosť s r. o., Jantárová 30
040 01 Košice, triglav.archeologia@gmail.com

s. 144-154
NÁLEZY FAJOK ZO 17. – 19. STOROČIA NA KAPUŠIANSKOM, ŠARIŠSKOM A UHROVECKOM HRADE Z VÝSKUMOV ARCHEOLOGICKEJ SPOLOČNOSTI TRIGLAV


     The findings of pipes from the 17th to 19th century on Kapušiansky, Šarišský and Uhrovecký castle from the research of the archaeological company TRIGLAV.
In the article the authors offer an overview of new pipes findings from archaeological excavations in the mentioned castles from the years 2013-2015. Decay of the surveyed castles dates no later than the first third of the 18th century. Since then, the permanent settlement of people - potential tobacco smokers – is rather exceptional. The findings of pipes come from time horizon of the 17th to the end of 19th century. On the one hand, the findings relate to the resident population of castles (garrison, settlers) in the final period of their use (17th - early 18th century) and on the other hand, tell us about the short-term visits to the 19th century and later (gathering of construction materials, tourism, sports, hunting). In the evaluated group there are 16 pipes, one of which is a single-piece (Fig. 1: 1a, b), the others are two-pieced. Pipes from the 17th century are fairly easy to identify because they attract attention to certain features that do not occur in later periods: white or ocher, fine clay; green, olive, yellow, or brown transparent glaze; smaller size of the head of the pipes; the decoration is usually combined relief (ribs, projections) with engraving and linear patterns under the cover of coat glaze (Fig. 1: 2-6b). Based on analogies from the Slovak, Hungarian and Czech sites there can be no doubt of their dating between the years 1600-1650. These findings are evidence of the application of the “Turkish fashion” when choosing a smoking tool, since it is a type of Turkish pipes. An interesting finding of a stummel of a pipe of the Turkish type on Kapušiansky castle with a rich pattern and stamp decorations with a thickened end extending into the tapered mortise for the stem (Fig. 2: 1a, b) that based on numerous analogies from Hungary can be dated back to around the year 1700. In addition to Kapušiansky castle, there are pipes from Šarišský castle, which we consider to have a typical shape for the 18th century (Fig. 2: 3a-5b). This is a continuation of the development of Turkish pipes, which is characterized by not very high cylindrical bowl on a stummel and short shank ended with a thick mortise, normally a knurled helical hack, which is reminiscent of a turban (Fig. 2: 5a, b). This type of pipe has in its time been a popular, and sought after, and it is now quite common among the findings of pipes throughout Slovakia. Pipes from the 19th century are represented in the presentation file by several findings. We can only safely assign the production center to the pipe from Podrečany (Fig. 3: 2a-c). It was made in the first half of the 19th century. These pipes, praised for their high quality, have a typical black polished surface, however they do occur also in brown design, or (as in our findings) as to their colour combinations, they depended on the conditions of firing. Another five pipes from the 19th century can be characterized only in part, as we retain only small fragments, found at Šariš Castle. The first one is a black pipe with a bar on the neck, which in addition to decorative tasks could have also had a practical role in stabilizing and storing of the pipe (Fig. 3: 6a, b). The other one represents two sherds from the stummel of the pipe with an engraved circular decoration (Fig. 3: 5a, b). Especially noteworthy is another pipe - originally a yellow glazed specimen with squared (probably hexagonal) bowl on a stummel (Fig. 3: 4). The final sample is fragmentary preserved pipe with plastic figural decoration. The decoration is that of a male figure with a preserved part of the head with his chin, left shoulder and the waist with the thighs. The figure is likely to be clad in Hungarian folk apparel and obviously depicting a soldier because on the left side of the breast there is a medal on left thigh and saber (Fig. 3: 3). Similar pipes are known in the European pipe-smoking environment. Recorded are popular images of hussars, saluting soldiers and guards. In the Hungarian environment it was also popular to depict politicians (L. Kossuth, I. Széchenyi), artists (S. Kisfaludy), or other favourite characters, which naturally corresponded with the atmosphere in the Habsburg monarchy after the revolutionary events in the years 1848/1849 and in the second half of the 19th century.
Translated by Stanislav Kužila.


Key words: Slovakia, castles, 17th-19th century, pipes, archaeological findings.
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